Value of a digital option trading securities


Thus, it will be apparent that for each options class, there may be several option series, each of which are separately priced. For example, assume PQR Corp. Thus, by referring to the above symbology scheme, all interested parties recognize this symbol as denoting an option for the underlying asset PQR derived from the first three characters in the symbol - PQR , which is a call option expiring in October denoted by the "J" , with a strike price of 70 denoted by the "N".

This five 5 character symbology is an industry-wide convention for the processing of standardized exchange-traded options contracts. Options that cannot be made to fit within the 5 character symbology cannot be exchange-traded, because current industry systems only recognize the 5 character symbology. All other option styles, including European-style binary options, have traded OTC, where systems and processes are more flexible and can be made to recognize and accept a vast scope of varying option contract terms, and where a symbology scheme does not exist to limit product scope.

For current standardized options, at expiration a determination is made as to whether the option expires in-, at-, or out-of-the-money. This is determined by establishing an agreed-upon definitive settlement closing price for the underlying security, which is compared to each strike price to determine if the settlement closing price was greater than, equal to, or less than the strike price. With current standardized options there are standardized procedures that are followed to determine the settlement closing prices.

For example, for traditional put and call equity options, the OCC determines the settlement closing price by taking the last reported composite trade at the close of trading, i.

For index options, the designated reporting authority i. The OCC then compares the settlement closing value to existing strike prices to determine which options are in-, at-, or out-of-the-money. In the case of some index options, this value is calculated not by looking at any one price of any one index or security at any one particular time, but rather is derived by taking a volume weighted average price NWAP of underlying securities over a designated period of time.

Standardized call and put equity options traded on the options exchange require a holder to tender exercise instructions in order for the option to be exercise or not exercised at expiration. For the purpose of convenience, the OCC, as issuer, has implemented an "Exercise-by-Exception" procedure which will exercise an option without specific exercise instructions if the option is in-the-money by the exercise threshold amount or more.

The exercise threshold amount effectively triggers an automatic exercise. The application of the "Exercise-by-Exception" procedure will occur in all cases except where a holder of an option delivers contrary instructions. This feature significantly differentiates FROs from traditional, exchange-traded options. It has long been recognized that in order for a market to remain viable, participants must have a level of comfort and trust that they are transacting in a "fair" environment.

Organized exchanges in the U. Since the adoption of the Securities. Exchange Act of , which created the SEC, particular focus has been paid to ensure that markets are not susceptible to manipulation. The SEC was created in part to stem the specific practice of "gaming" or manipulating stock prices such as was done by. Market fairness and integrity is a necessary underpinning of any market, as well as in the trading in any particular product or security upon any market.

The exact price at which any security closes on any given day can have important consequences. As discussed above, the closing price of an underlying security prior to expiration of an option has particular importance, as it is that value which dictates whether the option closes in, at or out-of-the-money. Accordingly, significant regulatory and surveillance efforts are employed by organized exchanges, self-regulatory organizations SROs and other regulatory bodies in an effort to detect, deter and eliminate potential manipulation of an underlying security that is near an option strike price at expiration.

Tremendous liquidity has been achieved in the exchange-traded options market, largely the result of standardization. The primary benefit of standardization and the reason for the tremendous liquidity is the interchangability or fungibility of option contracts regardless of where the option was originally executed. As a result, multiple contra-parties may exist.

In the OTC markets, this benefit does not exist. In the case of multiply-listed or multiply-traded options option classes listed and traded on more than one options exchange , standardization makes it possible to purchase an option contract on one exchange, and then sell it on another. Binary options have never been traded on a national securities exchange in a standardized form.

There is a need in the art to provide liquidity in the binary options market, and there thus exists a need in the art for systems and methods for trading binary options on an exchange in a standardized form. An embodiment of the invention generally relates to the unique use and adaptation of the five 5 -character maximum option symbology scheme, or any other adaptations of such options symbology scheme in the future, to allow for the recognition and differentiation of FROs or binary options from traditional exchange- traded options within that scheme, thus making possible the standardized trading, clearing, and settlement of FROs or binary options.

An embodiment of the invention generally relates to a specific method, uniquely applied, for calculating the closing settlement value of a security underlying a FRO or binary option, which method and application create necessary conditions for the trading of these instruments in standardized format on an organized exchange.

An embodiment of the invention is a method for trading fixed return options comprising listing a FRO in standardized form on an organized exchange, and clearing and settling the FRO using the same systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options. The method may further comprise the step of assigning symbols to the FRO that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange-traded options.

The method may further comprise the step of processing transactions involving the FRO using existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems based on the symbols assigned to the FRO. The method may further comprise the step of calculating the closing settlement value of a security underlying the FRO using a volume weighted average price NWAP of the security.

In one embodiment, the NWAP of the security may be calculated over a pre-determined amount of time on the last regular trading day prior to expiration of the FRO. The method may further comprise the step of assigning a multiplier code for the FRO which provides information about the FRO for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options.

Another embodiment of the invention is a system for trading a FRO, comprising an electronic order delivery and execution system in an exchange-trading environment, wherein the same electronic order delivery and execution system used to execute transactions in and deliver the FRO is used to execute transactions in and deliver standard, non-binary options.

The system may further include a means for assigning symbols to the FRO that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange- traded options.

The system may further include a means for processing transactions involving the FRO using existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems based on the symbols assigned to the FRO. The system may further include means for calculating the closing settlement value of a security underlying the FRO using a NWAP of the security. In one embodiment, the FRO may be traded through an on- floor auction in the trading crowd.

The system may further include means for assigning symbols to the FRO that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange- traded options. In one embodiment, a multiplier code for the FRO provides information about the fixed return option for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options. Another embodiment of the invention is a computer program product for listing FROs on an exchange, comprising instructions for assigning symbols to the FRO that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange-traded options.

In one embodiment, the symbols provide sufficient information for existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems to process transactions involving the FRO based on the symbols assigned by the computer program product to the FRO. In one embodiment, a second computer program product computes a closing settlement value of a security underlying the FRO using a NWAP of the security. The second computer program product may include means for inputting data from an exchange or exchanges comprising the number of shares of the underlying security and the price of the underlying security for a predetermined amount of time before market close.

The computer program product may comprise an instruction for assigning a multiplier code for the FRO that provides information about the FRO for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options. For simplicity and illustrative purposes, the principles of the present invention are described by referring mainly to the embodiment as intended to be employed by the Amex.

However, one of ordinary skill in the art would readily recognize that the embodiments of the invention are equally applicable to, and can be implemented in, many types of organized exchange processing systems, and that any such variations do not depart from the true spirit and scope of the present invention. Moreover, while in the following detailed description, references are made to the accompanying figures, which illustrate specific embodiments, changes may be made to the embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

The following detailed description is, therefore, not to be taken in a limiting sense and the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims and their equivalents. An embodiment of the invention generally relates to the trading of a FRO financial product, i. In one embodiment, the performance or payoff of the FRO financial product is based on the predicted performance of an underlying security over a predetermined amount of time.

In various embodiments, the underlying security may be stock, security indexes, exchange-traded funds, bonds, commodities, or other types of financial instruments, assets or any other item of economic significance.

FROs are unique compared to existing standardized options trading on national securities exchanges due to their non-linear, fixed amount payout structure. No existing standardized option currently trading on organized exchanges has such structure. Instead, existing standardized put and call options on securities have a linear payout structure linked to the difference between the option's strike price and the value of the underlying security.

In some embodiments, the FRO financial products of the invention have three broad types or classes of products based on the predicted performance of the underlying security. First, as illustrated in Figure 5, "Finish-High" SM is a class of FRO financial products in which the writer pays a predetermined amount of cash when the settlement value of an underlying security exceeds a predetermined fixed value, i.

If the settlement value is less than the strike price, the writer pays nothing On or before the purchase of the "Finish- High" FRO, the predetermined payoff value, the strike price, and the expiration date are set On or before the sale of the "Finish-Low" FRO, a predetermined payoff value, the strike price, and the expiration date are set A writer of the "Finish-Low" FRO financial product pays a predetermined amount of cash when the settlement value of an underlying security falls below the strike price on the expiration date If the settlement price of the underlying security is greater than the strike price, the writer pays nothing In this embodiment, the "Target" FRO financial product pays a fixed amount of cash when the settlement value of the underlying security is within a range of two strike prices at the expiration date.

On or before the sale of the "Target" FRO, two predetermined strike prices, a first lower strike price and a second upper strike price, are set, along with the expiration date If, on the expiration date, the settlement value of the underlying security is greater than the first strike price , and is less than the second strike price , then the writer pays the payoff price If either of those conditions is not met, however, the writer pays nothing , Such a limitation is practical to avoid creating options for which there would be very little demand because of the small likelihood that much greater price fluctuations would occur.

In one aspect of an embodiment of the invention, the OCC will issue and clear transactions in FROs as it currently does for all existing standardized options. In order to allow the FRO financial product to trade on secondary markets, one embodiment of the invention is a method for listing the FRO financial product, and having the product recognized by the various systems used currently for the listing, trading, transmitting, clearing and settling of standardized options, including those systems utilized by the OCC.

Systems used by the OCC and other parties to give proper routing and accounting treatment to particular financial products, such as systems that recognize various product types and calculate appropriate margin amounts for particular products, must be adapted to recognize the FRO instruments as separate and distinct. To that end, a mapping algorithm may be utilized to create symbols that represent the underlying security, the fact that the option is a binary option or FRO as opposed to a typical put or call option, the expiration date and the strike price, where the symbols are then listed for trading on an exchange.

In some embodiments, a computer means may be used to execute the mapping algorithm to create FRO symbols. The root symbol may comprise up to three characters. The root symbol will be unique, and specifically must be different from the root symbol for the non-. FRO related to the same underlying asset.

An expiration symbol is generated for the expiration date of the FRO product and concatenated to the root symbol Subsequently, a strike price symbol is generated for the strike price for the underlying security and concatenated to the existing combination of the root symbol and expiration symbol In one embodiment, the mapping algorithm may be implemented as a computer program module to be integrated with an existing exchange, e.

In other embodiments, the expiration symbol and strike price symbols utilize the existing option contract symbol library for their respective symbol.

It is within the scope of the invention that other symbol libraries may be used for the root, expiration, and strike price symbols. For example, in the case of the "Target" FRO, a new library of barrier ranges may be defined to correlate to the 26 character choices for the last strike price character in the traditional five 5 character symbol chain.

More specifically, in one embodiment, the symbology scheme for the last two characters of standardized exchange traded options is set forth in Table III below and Table II above , respectively.

In other embodiments involving a "Target" FRO, the root symbol may indicate that the option is a "Target" FRO, the identity of the underlying security, and the expiration month. This leaves the remaining two characters to indicate the lower and upper strike prices. FRO financial product know the expected return at the time of purchase if the underlying security performs as expected. In contrast, the "traditional" option does not typically have a known return at the time of purchase, i.

In addition, because the return on the FRO financial product is a "fixed amount," a buyer of the FRO financial product does not need to determine the absolute magnitude of the underlying security's price movement relative to the strike price as is the case with traditional options. A systemic benefit provided by the FRO financial product versus their OTC binary option counterpart is that standardized clearing and settlement systems may be programmed to recognize FROs based on their unique underlying symbols and segregation for particular treatment by systems used for calculating permissible margin as well as final payout amounts due at settlement.

Thus, existing clearing and settlement systems may easily be adapted to handle transactions in FROs without any structural changes to the systems, and with only minimal effort. In various embodiments of the invention, the fixed return amount for FROs may be set for all FROs at some standard price. In some embodiments of the invention, the multiplier of the FRO may be as with traditional standardized options.

With respect to traditional options, the multiplier indicates that shares of the underlying security are represented by a single option. As a result, the quoted price is multiplied by to derive the actual contract purchase price or premium in dollars.

While the payoff amount of FROs will not necessarily depend on this multiplier like standard options' payoff amounts do, it may be convenient to adopt the standard multiplier in order to more easily adapt existing options trading systems to trading in FROs. In other embodiments of the invention, the FRO financial product may employ a different multiplier that the existing convention of " In one embodiment of the invention, a different processing method may be utilized for calculating the "closing" or "settlement" price of the underlying asset than that used for typical exchange-traded options with the same underlying asset.

Thus, whereas typical exchange-traded equity options have a settlement price determined by the OCC based on a "composite price," i.

Thus, in some embodiments of the invention, calculation of a volume weighted average price NWAP for the underlying asset over some designated time period e. This embodiment protects against any potential price manipulation that could occur at expiration motivated by the non-linear or "all-or-nothing" nature of FROs.

Thus, whereas the standard composite pricing mechanism used by the OCC is subject to manipulation by unscrupulous options traders by last-minute, small volume trading, the VWAP pricing mechanism makes it much less practical to manipulate the price of the underlying securities in order to meet the strike price.

Calculation of the VWAP may be accomplished using the following algorithm, for example, a computer means with pricing inputs from one or more exchanges or markets. An amount of time prior to the market close at expiration is selected, for example, 15 minutes. During that time, each transaction involving the underlying security is recorded as a number of shares sold and a selling price for those shares.

For each transaction involving the underlying security during the preselected time, the number of shares is multiplied by the selling price for those shares to calculate a transaction price. The transaction price for each transaction involving the underlying security during the preselected time is added, and the total is divided by the total number of underlying securities sold during the preselected time:.

In one embodiment, the VWAP settlement price may be disseminated by the exchanges that list the FRO as the official settlement price for the FRO, and may be made publicly available through various market data vendors as well as on the exchanges' websites. In yet another embodiment of the invention, where processing systems have distinct fields for identifying product types, product classes; or product codes, or for identifying product sub-types, sub-classifications or sub-codes for segregating and various distinct processing of different products, a unique product type, class, code or any other unique identifier may be attached to FROs so that they may be recogmzed as such by systems and individuals for appropriate processing.

Kind code of ref document: Country of ref document: The invention relates to financial systems and methods for trading fixed return options on secondary markets such as stock exchanges. The system employs a novel method for calculating the closing settlement value for securities underlying fixed return options or binary options in order to maintain a fair and orderly trading environment for these instruments on an organized exchange. The specialist post is a specific location on the trading floor of the Exchange designated for the trading of a specific option class.

The method of claim 1 , further comprising: The method of claim 2, further comprising: The method of claim 3, further comprising: The method of claim 4, wherein the volume weighted average price of the security is calculated over a pre-determined time period on the last regular trading day prior to expiration.

The method of claim 1, wherein a multiplier code for the fixed return option provides information about the fixed return option for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options. A system for trading a fixed return option, comprising: The system of claim 7, wherein the system includes means for assigning symbols to the fixed return option that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange-traded options. The system of claim 8, wherein the system further comprises means for processing transactions involving the fixed return option using existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems based on the symbols assigned to the fixed return option.

The system of claim 9, further comprising means for calculating the closing settlement value of a security underlying the fixed return option using a volume weighted average price of the security.

The system of claim 7, wherein the fixed return option is traded through an on- floor auction. The system of claim 11, wherein the system includes means for assigning symbols to the fixed return option that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange-traded options. The system of claim 12, wherein the system further comprises means for processing transactions involving the fixed return option using existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems based on the symbols assigned to the fixed return option.

The system of claim 13, further comprising means for calculating the closing settlement value of a security underlying the fixed return option using a volume weighted average price of the security.

The system of claim 7, wherein a multiplier code for the fixed return option provides information about the fixed return option for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options.

A computer program product for listing fixed return options on an exchange, comprising instructions for assigning symbols to the fixed return option that comply with the symbol conventions of standard exchange-traded options.

The computer program product of claim 16, wherein the symbols provide sufficient information for existing trading, clearance, margin, and settlement systems to process transactions involving the fixed return option based on the symbols assigned by the computer program product to the fixed return option.

The computer program product of claim 16, further comprising a second computer program product that computes a closing settlement value of a security underlying the fixed return option using a volume weighted average price of the security.

The computer program product of claim 18, wherein the second computer program product includes means for inputting data from an exchange comprising the number of shares of the underlying security and the price of the underlying security for a predetermined amount of time before market close.

The computer program product of claim 16, further comprising an instruction for assigning a multiplier code for the fixed return option that provides infonnation about the fixed return option for the systems used on the exchange to clear and settle standardized, non-binary options.

US USB2 en Binary options on an organized exchange and the systems and methods for trading the same. Hybrid trading system for concurrently trading securities or derivatives through both electronic and open-outcry trading mechanisms.

Method and system for providing an automated auction for internalization and complex orders in a hybrid trading system. Method and system for providing order routing to a virtual crowd in a hybrid trading system. Hybrid trading system for concurrently trading through both electronic and open-outcry trading mechanisms.

Method of creating and trading derivative investment products based on an average price of an underlying asset during a calculation period. Method and system for creating and trading corporate debt security derivative investment instruments. In order to get the best of the different types, traders are advised to shop around for brokers who will give them maximum flexibility in terms of types and expiration times that can be set.

Most trading platforms have been designed with mobile device users in mind. So the mobile version will be very similar, if not the same, as the full web version on the traditional websites.

Brokers will cater for both iOS and Android devices, and produce versions for each. Downloads are quick, and traders can sign up via the mobile site as well. Our reviews contain more detail about each brokers mobile app, but most are fully aware that this is a growing area of trading.

Traders want to react immediately to news events and market updates, so brokers provide the tools for clients to trade wherever they are. So, in short, they are a form of fixed return financial options. Call and Put are simply the terms given to buying or selling an option. As a financial investment tool they in themselves not a scam, but there are brokers, trading robots and signal providers that are untrustworthy and dishonest.

Our forum is a great place to raise awareness of any wrongdoing. Binary trading strategies are unique to each trade. Money management is essential to ensure risk management is applied to all trading.

Different styles will suit different traders and strategies will also evolve and change. Traders need to ask questions of their investing aims and risk appetite and then learn what works for them.

Binary options can be used to gamble, but they can also be used to make trades based on value and expected profits. So the answer to the question will come down to the trader. If you have traded forex or its more volatile cousins, crude oil or spot metals such as gold or silver, you will have probably learnt one thing: Things like leverage and margin, news events, slippages and price re-quotes, etc can all affect a trade negatively.

The situation is different in binary options trading. There is no leverage to contend with, and phenomena such as slippage and price re-quotes have no effect on binary option trade outcomes. This reduces the risk in binary option trading to the barest minimum.

The binary options market allows traders to trade financial instruments spread across the currency and commodity markets as well as indices and bonds. This flexibility is unparalleled, and gives traders with the knowledge of how to trade these markets, a one-stop shop to trade all these instruments.

A binary trade outcome is based on just one parameter: The trader is essentially betting on whether a financial asset will end up in a particular direction. In addition, the trader is at liberty to determine when the trade ends, by setting an expiry date. This gives a trade that initially started badly the opportunity to end well. This is not the case with other markets.

For example, control of losses can only be achieved using a stop loss. Otherwise, a trader has to endure a drawdown if a trade takes an adverse turn in order to give it room to turn profitable.

The simple point being made here is that in binary options, the trader has less to worry about than if he were to trade other markets. Traders have better control of trades in binaries. For example, if a trader wants to buy a contract, he knows in advance, what he stands to gain and what he will lose if the trade is out-of-the-money.

For example, when a trader sets a pending order in the forex market to trade a high-impact news event, there is no assurance that his trade will be filled at the entry price or that a losing trade will be closed out at the exit stop loss. The payouts per trade are usually higher in binaries than with other forms of trading.

This is achievable without jeopardising the account. In other markets, such payouts can only occur if a trader disregards all rules of money management and exposes a large amount of trading capital to the market, hoping for one big payout which never occurs in most cases. In order to trade the highly volatile forex or commodities markets, a trader has to have a reasonable amount of money as trading capital. For instance, trading gold, a commodity with an intra-day volatility of up to 10, pips in times of high volatility, requires trading capital in tens of thousands of dollars.

The payouts for binary options trades are drastically reduced when the odds for that trade succeeding are very high. Of course in such situations, the trades are more unpredictable. Experienced traders can get around this by sourcing for these tools elsewhere; inexperienced traders who are new to the market are not as fortunate. This is changing for the better though, as operators mature and become aware of the need for these tools to attract traders. Unlike in forex where traders can get accounts that allow them to trade mini- and micro-lots on small account sizes, many binary option brokers set a trading floor; minimum amounts which a trader can trade in the market.

This makes it easier to lose too much capital when trading binaries. In this situation, four losing trades will blow the account. When trading a market like the forex or commodities market, it is possible to close a trade with minimal losses and open another profitable one, if a repeat analysis of the trade reveals the first trade to have been a mistake.

Where binaries are traded on an exchange, this is mitigated however. Spot forex traders might overlook time as a factor in their trading which is a very very big mistake. Binaries by their nature force one to exit a position within a given time frame win or lose which instills a greater focus on discipline and risk management.

In forex trading this lack of discipline is the 1 cause for failure to most traders as they will simply hold losing positions for longer periods of time and cut winning positions in shorter periods of time.

Below are some examples of how this works. This psychology of being able to focus on limits and the dual axis will aid you in becoming a better trader overall. The very advantage of spot trading is its very same failure — the expansion of profits exponentially from 1 point in price. They will simply make you a better overall trader from the start. To successfully trade you need to practice money management and emotional control.

Introduction Video — How to Trade Binary Options These videos will introduce you to the concept of binary options and how trading works. Here are some of the types available: Will a price finish higher or lower than the current price a the time of expiry. These can often be some way from the current strike price. Select the asset or market to trade — Assets lists are huge, and cover Commodities, Stocks, Cryptocurrency, Forex or Indices.

The price of oil, or the Apple stock price, for example. Select the expiry time — Options can expire anywhere between 30 seconds up to a year. Some broker label buttons differently. Choose a Broker Options fraud has been a significant problem in the past.

Here are some shortcuts to pages that can help you determine which broker is right for you: Low minimum deposit brokers — if you want to trade for real without having to deposit large sums of money. Asset Lists The number and diversity of assets you can trade varies from broker to broker. Expiry Times The expiry time is the point at which a trade is closed and settled. Expiries are generally grouped into three categories: Long term — Any expiry beyond the end of the day would be considered long term.

The longest expiry might be 12 months. Regulation While slow to react to binary options initially, regulators around the world are now starting to regulate the industry and make their presence felt. The major regulators currently include: Strategies and Guides We have a lot of detailed guides and strategy articles for both general education and specialized trading techniques. Beginners Guides If you are totally new to the trading scene then watch this great video by Professor Shiller of Yale University who introduces the main ideas of options: Best Time to Trade Lesson 2: Tools for Trading Lesson 3: Trading Breakouts using Pivot Points Lesson 4: