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Consequently, the first step yields the intercept and the factor-outcome association estimates, and their associated within-study covariance matrix (containing the variance of the intercept and each association, as well as their respective covariances ) for each individual study.

Specifically, the model fits the following marginal distributions: (Model1) with unknown parameters,, and. Here, and represent the average baseline risk and factor-outcome association across studies, respectively, and describe their respective degree of heterogeneity between studies, and their between-study covariance.