Combination option trade! profitable strategies and techniques
New brokerage firms which specialized in serving online traders who wanted to trade on the ECNs emerged. Archipelago eventually became a stock exchange and in was purchased by the NYSE. Moreover, the trader was able in to buy the stock almost instantly and got it at a cheaper price. ECNs are in constant flux. New ones are formed, while existing ones are bought or merged. As of the end of , the most important ECNs to the individual trader were:.
This combination of factors has made day trading in stocks and stock derivatives such as ETFs possible. The low commission rates allow an individual or small firm to make a large number of trades during a single day.
The liquidity and small spreads provided by ECNs allow an individual to make near-instantaneous trades and to get favorable pricing.
The ability for individuals to day trade coincided with the extreme bull market in technological issues from to early , known as the Dot-com bubble. In March, , this bubble burst, and a large number of less-experienced day traders began to lose money as fast, or faster, than they had made during the buying frenzy.
The NASDAQ crashed from back to ; many of the less-experienced traders went broke, although obviously it was possible to have made a fortune during that time by shorting or playing on volatility.
In parallel to stock trading, starting at the end of the s, a number of new Market Maker firms provided foreign exchange and derivative day trading through new electronic trading platforms.
These allowed day traders to have instant access to decentralised markets such as forex and global markets through derivatives such as contracts for difference. Most of these firms were based in the UK and later in less restrictive jurisdictions, this was in part due to the regulations in the US prohibiting this type of over-the-counter trading.
These firms typically provide trading on margin allowing day traders to take large position with relatively small capital, but with the associated increase in risk. Retail forex trading became a popular way to day trade due to its liquidity and the hour nature of the market. The following are several basic strategies by which day traders attempt to make profits. Besides these, some day traders also use contrarian reverse strategies more commonly seen in algorithmic trading to trade specifically against irrational behavior from day traders using these approaches.
It is important for a trader to remain flexible and adjust their techniques to match changing market conditions. Some of these approaches require shorting stocks instead of buying them: There are several technical problems with short sales—the broker may not have shares to lend in a specific issue, the broker can call for the return of its shares at any time, and some restrictions are imposed in America by the U. Securities and Exchange Commission on short-selling see uptick rule for details.
Some of these restrictions in particular the uptick rule don't apply to trades of stocks that are actually shares of an exchange-traded fund ETF.
Trend following , a strategy used in all trading time-frames, assumes that financial instruments which have been rising steadily will continue to rise, and vice versa with falling. The trend follower buys an instrument which has been rising, or short sells a falling one, in the expectation that the trend will continue. Contrarian investing is a market timing strategy used in all trading time-frames.
It assumes that financial instruments which have been rising steadily will reverse and start to fall, and vice versa. The contrarian trader buys an instrument which has been falling, or short-sells a rising one, in the expectation that the trend will change. Range trading, or range-bound trading, is a trading style in which stocks are watched that have either been rising off a support price or falling off a resistance price. That is, every time the stock hits a high, it falls back to the low, and vice versa.
Such a stock is said to be "trading in a range", which is the opposite of trending. A related approach to range trading is looking for moves outside of an established range, called a breakout price moves up or a breakdown price moves down , and assume that once the range has been broken prices will continue in that direction for some time. Scalping was originally referred to as spread trading.
Scalping is a trading style where small price gaps created by the bid-ask spread are exploited by the speculator. It normally involves establishing and liquidating a position quickly, usually within minutes or even seconds.
Scalping highly liquid instruments for off-the-floor day traders involves taking quick profits while minimizing risk loss exposure. The basic idea of scalping is to exploit the inefficiency of the market when volatility increases and the trading range expands. When stock values suddenly rise, they short sell securities that seem overvalued.
Rebate trading is an equity trading style that uses ECN rebates as a primary source of profit and revenue. Most ECNs charge commissions to customers who want to have their orders filled immediately at the best prices available, but the ECNs pay commissions to buyers or sellers who "add liquidity" by placing limit orders that create "market-making" in a security. Rebate traders seek to make money from these rebates and will usually maximize their returns by trading low priced, high volume stocks.
This enables them to trade more shares and contribute more liquidity with a set amount of capital, while limiting the risk that they will not be able to exit a position in the stock. The basic strategy of news playing is to buy a stock which has just announced good news, or short sell on bad news. Such events provide enormous volatility in a stock and therefore the greatest chance for quick profits or losses. Determining whether news is "good" or "bad" must be determined by the price action of the stock, because the market reaction may not match the tone of the news itself.
This is because rumors or estimates of the event like those issued by market and industry analysts will already have been circulated before the official release, causing prices to move in anticipation. The price movement caused by the official news will therefore be determined by how good the news is relative to the market's expectations, not how good it is in absolute terms. Keeping things simple can also be an effective methodology when it comes to trading. These traders rely on a combination of price movement, chart patterns, volume, and other raw market data to gauge whether or not they should take a trade.
This is seen as a "simplistic" and "minimalist" approach to trading but is not by any means easier than any other trading methodology. It requires a solid background in understanding how markets work and the core principles within a market, but the good thing about this type of methodology is it will work in virtually any market that exists stocks, foreign exchange, futures, gold, oil, etc.
An estimated one third of stock trades in in United States were generated by automatic algorithms , or high-frequency trading.
The increased use of algorithms and quantitative techniques has led to more competition and smaller profits. Commissions for direct-access brokers are calculated based on volume. The more shares traded, the cheaper the commission. A scalper can cover such costs with even a minimal gain.
The numerical difference between the bid and ask prices is referred to as the bid-ask spread. Most worldwide markets operate on a bid-ask -based system. The ask prices are immediate execution market prices for quick buyers ask takers while bid prices are for quick sellers bid takers.
If a trade is executed at quoted prices, closing the trade immediately without queuing would always cause a loss because the bid price is always less than the ask price at any point in time.
The bid-ask spread is two sides of the same coin. The spread can be viewed as trading bonuses or costs according to different parties and different strategies. On one hand, traders who do NOT wish to queue their order, instead paying the market price, pay the spreads costs.
On the other hand, traders who wish to queue and wait for execution receive the spreads bonuses. Some day trading strategies attempt to capture the spread as additional, or even the only, profits for successful trades.
Market data is necessary for day traders, rather than using the delayed by anything from 10 to 60 minutes, per exchange rules  market data that is available for free. A real-time data feed requires paying fees to the respective stock exchanges, usually combined with the broker's charges; these fees are usually very low compared to the other costs of trading.
The fees may be waived for promotional purposes or for customers meeting a minimum monthly volume of trades. Even a moderately active day trader can expect to meet these requirements, making the basic data feed essentially "free". In addition to the raw market data, some traders purchase more advanced data feeds that include historical data and features such as scanning large numbers of stocks in the live market for unusual activity.
Complicated analysis and charting software are other popular additions. These types of systems can cost from tens to hundreds of dollars per month to access.
Day trading is considered a risky trading style, and regulations [ which? Pattern day trader is a term defined by the SEC to describe any trader who buys and sells a particular security in the same trading day day trades , and does this four or more times in any five consecutive business day period.
It is important to note that this requirement is only for day traders using a margin account. In addition to the legal restrictions, day trading is speculation considered negatively both as personal behavior and for the potential damages on the real economy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the practice. For the occupation, see Day trader. If you do want to know more about the subject, below you will find further details on put call parity and how it can lead to arbitrage opportunities. We have also included some details on trading strategies that can be used to profit from arbitrage should you ever find a suitable opportunity. In order for arbitrage to actually work, there basically has to be some disparity in the price of a security, such as in the simple example mentioned above of a security being underpriced in a market.
In options trading, the term underpriced can be applied to options in a number of scenarios. For example, a call may be underpriced in relation to a put based on the same underlying security, or it could be underpriced when compared to another call with a different strike or a different expiration date.
In theory, such underpricing should not occur, due to a concept known as put call parity. The concept of put call parity is basically that options based on the same underlying security should have a static price relationship, taking into account the price of the underlying security, the strike of the contracts, and the expiration date of the contracts.
When put call parity is correctly in place, then arbitrage would not be possible. It's largely the responsibility of market makers,who influence the price of options contracts in the exchanges, to ensure that this parity is maintained. When it's violated, this is when opportunities for arbitrage potentially exist. In such circumstances, there are certain strategies that traders can use to generate risk free returns.
We have provided details on some of these below. Strike arbitrage is a strategy used to make a guaranteed profit when there's a price discrepancy between two options contracts that are based on the same underlying security and have the same expiration date, but have different strikes. The basic scenario where this strategy could be used is when the difference between the strikes of two options is less than the difference between their extrinsic values.
So as you can see, the strategy would return a profit regardless of what happened to the price of the underlying security. Strike arbitrage can occur in a variety of different ways, essentially any time that there's a price discrepancy between options of the same type that have different strikes.
The actual strategy used can vary too, because it depends on exactly how the discrepancy manifests itself. If you do find a discrepancy, it should be obvious what you need to do to take advantage of it. Remember, though, that such opportunities are incredibly rare and will probably only offer very small margins for profit so it's unlikely to be worth spending too much time look for them.
To understand conversion and reversal arbitrage, you should have a decent understanding of synthetic positions and synthetic options trading strategies, because these are a key aspect. The basic principle of synthetic positions in options trading is that you can use a combination of options and stocks to precisely recreate the characteristics of another position. Conversion and reversal arbitrage are strategies that use synthetic positions to take advantage of inconsistencies in put call parity to make profits without taking any risk.
As stated, synthetic positions emulate other positions in terms of the cost to create them and their payoff characteristics. It's possible that, if the put call parity isn't as it should be, that price discrepancies between a position and the corresponding synthetic position may exist. When this is the case, it's theoretically possible to buy the cheaper position and sell the more expensive one for a guaranteed and risk free return. For example a synthetic long call is created by buying stock and buying put options based on that stock.
If there was a situation where it was possible to create a synthetic long call cheaper than buying the call options, then you could buy the synthetic long call and sell the actual call options.
The same is true for any synthetic position. When buying stock is involved in any part of the strategy, it's known as a conversion. When short selling stock is involved in any part of the strategy, it's known as a reversal.